What are the types of rays emitted by the sun?

  • Visible light: It is the light we can see with our eyes
  • Infrared rays: These are the rays we can feel the heat from
  • Ultraviolet rays: These are the rays we cannot see or feel. The atmosphere protects us from most of them. Although prolonged exposure is dangerous, our bodies need them to produce vitamin D

What are the types of ultraviolet rays?

  • The atmosphere protects us from only a small amount
  • It penetrates through glass
  • The atmosphere protects us from most of it
  • It does not penetrate through glass
  • The atmosphere completely absorbs it
  • It does not reach the Earth's surface
Its harms:
  • Causes wrinkles
  • Harms the retina of the eye
  • Reduces the body's immunity
  • Increases the risk of skin cancer
Its harms:
  • Cause wrinkles
  • Cause flash burn (a burn on the cornea resulting in temporary loss of vision)
  • Reduce the body's immunity
  • Is the main cause of sunburn and skin cancer


It causes minimal harm










We often hear that protection from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays can be achieved using sunscreen. But what is the mechanism behind sunscreens?

Firstly, there are two types of sunscreens:

  1. Physical or Mineral Sunscreens:
  • These sunscreens contain: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide
  • They are considered safe, effective, and FDA-approved


  • Applied to the skin's surface
  • Acts as a shield that reflects sunlight
  • Aids in protecting the skin from damage, especially wrinkles and hyperpigmentation
  • Prevents incoming ultraviolet rays from windows that can damage collagen, emphasizing the importance of using sunscreen even if you don't plan to go outside
  • Provides broad-spectrum protection (against UVA, UVB)
  • Suitable for sensitive skin
  • Can be applied to the face and neck daily


  • Tends to leave a noticeable white layer on the skin (chalky layer), making it less preferred for people with dark skin
  • Difficult to distribute evenly on the skin
  • Not water-resistant

2. Chemical sunscreens:

  • Chemical sunscreens include several compounds such as octyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, benzophenone, avobenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, and octinoxate (the most commonly used).


  • Penetrates into the skin
  • Acts like a sponge, absorbing sunlight
  • Does not leave a visible or white layer on the skin
  • Easy to apply and distribute on the skin
  • Does not cause a greasy or sticky feeling on the skin
  • Suitable for all skin tones


  • They may not be suitable for individuals with sensitive skin

Note: The term "broad-spectrum sunscreen" refers to sunscreen that provides protection against both UVA and UVB rays and is the preferred choice for use

What does SPF mean?

  • SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor
  • It is a relative measure of the amount of protection against sunburn when using sunscreen compared to not using it. For example, when using an SPF=15 sunscreen, it means the skin is protected 15 times more than without using it

Is a higher SPF sunscreen better?

  • In reality, there's no significant difference in protection. For instance, SPF 30 sunscreens provide about 97% protection, while SPF 50 sunscreens provide about 98% protection
  • It's important to note that no sunscreen provides 100% protection

Based on the information provided, what type of sunscreen should be used?

You should use a sunscreen that possesses the following characteristics, as recommended by the American Academy of Dermatology:

  1. Provides broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays.
  2. Has an SPF of 30 or higher.
  3. Is water-resistant.

Given these criteria, SUN-LESS fits the description and would effectively protect your skin from sunburns, wrinkles, and skin cancer

The correct choice of pharmaceutical form should be based on the area of the body you want to protect. For example:

  • Cream is used for the face and hands
  • Lotion can be used on the entire body
SUN-LESS cream SUN-LESS lotion
Contains both physical and chemical sunscreens Contains chemical sunscreen
Used for the face and hands Used for the entire body

Has antioxidant properties due to its content of Vitamin E

Has antioxidant properties due to its content of Vitamin E and Jojoba oil
Soothes skin irritation and redness It moisturizes the skin due to its content of Allantoin and Dexpanthenol
Suitable for sensitive skin It aids in wound healing due to its content of Jojoba oil and Dexpanthenol

Note: Make sure to reapply sunscreen every two hours and also after sweating or swimming

What about children?

  • Children under 6 months of age should be kept away from sun exposure
  • The best way to protect them is to try to keep them in the shade and make sure they drink plenty of fluids
  • For children aged 6 months and above, a broad-spectrum, water-resistant sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher can be applied, remembering to reapply every two hours

Note: Sunscreens used for children aged 6 months and above should contain zinc oxide or titanium dioxide, or be specifically made for them to avoid irritation to their sensitive skin

Tips for achieving optimal sun protection:

  • Avoid Sun Exposure During Peak Hours: Avoid being in the sun between 10 AM and 4 PM, even during the winter season
  • Wear Protective Clothing: Wear protective clothing that shields you from direct sunlight, such as hats, sunglasses, and loose-fitting clothing. Loose clothing provides additional sun protection
  • Use Suitable Sunscreen: Apply a suitable broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF greater than 30 to all exposed areas at least 20 minutes before going out. Reapply every two hours and after sweating or engaging in physical activities



  1. Environmental Protection Agency. Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation and Sun Exposure 2023 [Available from:
  2. Timmons J, Wightman C. What’s the Difference Between Physical and Chemical Sunscreen? 2022 [Available from:
  3. Food and Drug Administration. Sunscreen: How to Help Protect Your Skin from the Sun 2023 [Available from:
  4. Food and Drug Administration. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 2017 [Available from:
  5. Latha MS, Martis J, Shobha V, Sham Shinde R, Bangera S, Krishnankutty B, et al. Sunscreening agents: a review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2013;6(1):16-26.
  6. American Academy of Dermatology. SUNSCREEN FAQS 2023 [Available from:


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