Anemia is considered one of the most common blood disorders.

What are its symptoms?

  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Headache
  • Cold extremities
  • Paleness of the skin
  • Chest pain

What are its types?

  1. Iron-deficiency anemia
  2. Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anemia
  3. Aplastic anemia
  4. Hemolytic anemia
  5. Anemia caused by diseases


Firstly: Iron-deficiency anemia:

It is the most common type of anemia.


  1. Following an iron-deficient diet
  2. Heavy menstruation or bleeding
  3. Frequent blood donation
  4. Digestive system diseases such as Crohn's disease, malabsorption, hemorrhoids, gastric ulcer, gastric surgery
  5. Pregnancy, advancing age

Iron-deficiency anemia causes a condition called pica: mainly affecting pregnant women and children. The affected individuals have a desire to consume sand, ice, or dirty and harmful substances.


  • By administering oral iron supplements or giving injections to patients who cannot absorb iron, along with following an iron-rich diet.
  • Iron-rich foods include: meats, poultry, fish, leafy vegetables (such as spinach and kale), legumes (like beans and lentils), and nuts.

Iron supplements usually contain one of the following salts:

  Iron Fumarate Iron Gluconate Iron Sulfate
Iron Content 33% 12% 20%
Bioavailability High Less Least
Gastrointestinal side effects Common and strong Less Least

Therefore, iron fumarate is considered the safest, in addition to being gentler on the stomach, much like Folic Mammy from Domina.

Factors affecting iron bioavailability:

  • Vitamin C enhances the bioavailability of iron.
  • Vitamin A and beta-carotene release iron from its stores.
  • Meat, fish, and poultry increase iron absorption.
  • Foods containing phytic acid, such as grains, hinder iron absorption.
  • Calcium has a negative impact on iron absorption.
  • Polyphenols found in coffee and tea inhibit iron absorption.
  • Iron inhibits the action of certain medications: tetracycline, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, Parkinson's disease drugs.
  • Conversely, acid-reducing medications and calcium-containing supplements weaken iron absorption.


Secondly: Anemia due to B12 deficiency:

  • This vitamin is essential for the formation of healthy blood cells.
  • Anemia resulting from its deficiency is called macrocytic anemia, which causes the red blood cells to be abnormally large and not divide properly, leading to a decrease in their numbers.


  1. Pernicious anemia
  2. Stomach surgery
  3. Helicobacter pylori infection
  4. Advancing age
  5. Following a vegetarian diet
  6. Some medications: most notably, metformin, contraceptives, and stomach acid reducers


It is diagnosed by performing a blood test to determine the level of B12.


Oral supplements containing the deficient vitamin or injections.


Thirdly: Anemia due to folic acid deficiency:

  • This vitamin is essential for the formation of healthy blood cells.
  • Anemia resulting from folic acid deficiency is called macrocytic anemia.


  1. A diet poor in leafy vegetables or whole grains.
  2. Alcohol consumption.
  3. Digestive system issues.
  4. Pregnancy.
  5. Some medications: phenytoin, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, triamterene, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and barbiturates.


Oral supplements containing the deficient vitamin.


Fourthly: Aplastic Anemia:

  • It is a rare disorder of the bone marrow, where the bone marrow fails to produce enough blood cells.
  • This occurs due to the destruction or depletion of the stem cells that form blood cells in the bone marrow, especially when the immune system attacks the stem cells.


  1. Viral illnesses
  2. Ionizing radiation
  3. Exposure to chemicals or toxins


Fifthly: Hemolytic Anemia:

It occurs when red blood cells break down in the bloodstream or in the spleen.


  1. Mechanical causes (blood vessel expansion, heart valve leakage)
  2. Autoimmune disorders
  3. Congenital abnormalities: Examples include certain types of thalassemia, low levels of G6PD, sickle cell anemia (a hereditary hemolytic anemia)


The treatment is based on the underlying cause.


Anemia due to other causes:

  • Kidney diseases: Some kidney patients develop anemia because the kidneys do not produce enough erythropoietin hormone
  • Chemotherapy



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