Heat-Related Problems

Heat-Related Problems

Firstly: Heatstroke:

Heatstroke is considered one of the most dangerous heat-related illnesses.

How does it occur?

  • It happens when the core body temperature rises above 40.5 degrees Celsius, causing the body's internal systems to fail, including the failure of the sweating mechanism.
  • It is a medical emergency that can potentially lead to death, brain damage, or permanent disability if the affected individual does not receive prompt treatment.

What are the risk factors for heatstroke?

  1. Age: Infants and children under 4 years old. Adults over 65 years old.
  2. Certain Medications: Specific medications, such as diuretics (medications that increase urination), can contribute to heatstroke by affecting the body's ability to regulate temperature.
  3. Obesity: Being overweight can make it harder for the body to regulate its temperature and cool down effectively.
  4. Inadequate Fluid Intake: Not drinking enough fluids, especially in hot weather or during physical activity, increases the risk of heat-related illnesses like heatstroke.

What are the symptoms?

  1. Severe Increase in Body Temperature: A high and extremely elevated body temperature is a key symptom of heatstroke.
  2. Dry Skin: Due to the body's inability to sweat and cool down, the skin becomes dry.
  3. Nausea and Headache: Feeling of nausea and intense headaches are common symptoms.
  4. Confusion or Altered Mental State: Heatstroke can lead to confusion, agitation, slurred speech, irritability, delirium, or even seizures.
  5. Loss of Consciousness (Coma): In severe cases, it can progress to loss of consciousness or coma.

What are the first aid measures in this situation?

  1. Move the Individual to a Shaded Area: Transfer the person to a shaded or cool area. It's preferable to place them in a location with a fan or air conditioning.
  2. Remove Outer Clothing: Take off the person's outer clothing and start cooling them down using cold water or damp cloth compresses on the head, neck, armpits, and between the thighs.


Secondly: Heat Exhaustion

  • Heat exhaustion occurs due to the loss of water and salts from the body.
  • While not as severe as heatstroke, it should not be underestimated.
  • Without proper intervention, it can escalate into heatstroke.

What are the risk factors for heat exhaustion?

  1. Strenuous Activity in Hot Conditions: Engaging in vigorous physical activity in a hot environment increases the risk of heat exhaustion.
  2. Obesity: Being overweight can make individuals more susceptible to heat-related illnesses, including heat exhaustion.
  3. Certain Medications: Specific medications can interfere with the body's ability to regulate temperature, increasing the risk of heat exhaustion.
  4. Advanced Age: Older adults, especially those aged 65 and above, are at higher risk due to a decreased ability to regulate body temperature.

What are the symptoms?

  • General Weakness
  • Excessive Sweating
  • Headache
  • Pale Skin
  • Nausea and Stomach Pain
  • Muscle Cramps
  • Increased Heart Rate
  • Dark Urine

What are the first aid measures in this situation?

  1. Move the Individual to a Shaded Area: Transfer the person to a shaded or cool area. Using a fan or air conditioning in this area is advisable.
  2. Remove Tight Clothing and Heavy Accessories: Take off tight clothing and heavy accessories to help the person cool down.
  3. Apply Cold Water or Damp Cloth Compresses: Place cold water or damp cloth compresses on the head, neck, armpits, and between the thighs to help lower body temperature.
  4. Rehydration


Thirdly: Sunburn:

The term sunburn refers to the damage caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

What are the symptoms?

  • Pain
  • Discomfort and Itching
  • Swelling and Reddish Patches
  • Increased Risk of Skin Cancer
  • Systemic Effects: Severe sunburn can affect the entire body, causing fever, headache, nausea, and a general feeling of malaise.

What are the first aid measures in this situation?

  1. Cooling the Skin: Apply a cold, damp cloth or take a cool bath to cool the skin and relieve the discomfort of sunburn.
  2. Hydration: Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration caused by sunburn.
  3. Avoid Scratching or Peeling: Refrain from scratching or peeling the affected skin to prevent further irritation and potential infection.

What is the treatment?

Applying a moisturizing and skin-repairing agent, such as:

  1. Vita Panthenol:
    • Contains: 5% Dexpanthenol, Aloe Vera, Honey Extract, Jojoba Oil.
    • It possesses moisturizing, healing, anti-inflammatory properties, aiding in the healing of sunburns.
  2. UHydro lotion:
    • Contains: 5% Urea.
    • Urea is an organic compound naturally present in the skin.
    • It has highly moisturizing properties, aiding in maintaining skin hydration and health.


Fourthly: Heat Rash

  • It is a skin irritation caused by heat.
  • It occurs when sweat glands become blocked, causing small red bumps.
  • It typically appears on the neck, upper chest, under the breasts, and in skin folds.
  • It is more common in infants and young children.

What are the symptoms?

  • Pain
  • Discomfort
  • Intense Itching
  • Possibly Accompanied by Inflammation

What is the treatment?

  1. Move to a Cooler, Less Humid Place
  2. Cool the Area with Cold Water
  3. Wear Loose Clothing
  4. Use Hydrocortison Domina Cream: Apply Hydrocortison Domina cream to alleviate troublesome symptoms and itching, twice a day.


What are the preventive measures for the above conditions?

  1. Avoid Sun Exposure During Peak Hour: Avoid being in the sun between 10 AM and 5 PM when the sun's rays are strongest.
  2. Use Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen: Apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 30 before going out, and reapply every two hours.
  3. Stay Hydrated
  4. Wear Loose Clothing
  5. Avoid Alcohol
  6. Avoid Strenuous Exercise During Peak Hours



1. (NIOSH) TNIfOSaH. Heat Stress – Heat Related Illness: CDC; 2022 [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress/heatrelillness.html.

2. Hansen K. Do You Have Heat Stroke or Heat Exhaustion? Learn the Signs 2023 [Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/heat-stroke-vs-heat-exhaustion.

3. Robinson J. Heat Exhaustion 2023 [Available from: https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/heat-exhaustion.

4. Weatherspoon D. Understanding Heat Exhaustion: Symptoms, Tips for Self-Care, and More 2017 [Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/heat-exhaustion#seek-help.

5. APRN BA. How to treat and prevent sunburn 2023 [Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/176441.

6. Sullivan D. Home Remedies for Heat Rash 2023 [Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/heat-rash-home-remedies.

7. NHS. Heat exhaustion and heatstroke 2022 [Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/heat-exhaustion-heatstroke/.


Domina Pharmaceuticals
P.O. Box : 9622
Damascus - Syria


Email: info@dominapharm.com
Phone: +963 (11) 33 192 32
Phone: +963 (11) 33 201 04
Mobile: +963 (932) 993 304 159
Mobile: +963 (932) 993 366 254